Gender Differences Stems from Nature or Nurture
Academic Essay Assignment
An Essay Submitted to
Ali Burak K?rkbas
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
ENG 102 English and Composition II
Social scientists discuss the origin of gender differences between men and women. Some say that the discrepancy comes from the biological differences of sexes, such as the hormones, structure of brain and genetic codes. Others claim that this difference cannot be merely a biological difference; rather it comes from the influence of social environment in childhood, and societal constitution in everyday life. The differences between men and women are originated from the way they live rather than their biological differences because it can be seen in the society that gender roles can shift with the change of social paradigms, the way they are nurtured by their social environment greatly effects their gender codes and there is no exact scientific explanation of social relationships between them.
Men and women share the same social and economic environment and they have some roles in this field. These roles -especially in economic life- are detected by the modern civilizations needs. There is an illusion which, the roles of man and woman in society were ???sui generis??? ,in the notion that gender differences are stem from the natural codes but after The world war II Great Recession the jobs which known as only men have be able to do, had occupied by women. Boushey, Heater presents year-by-year statistics about raise of women in industry, and points out that ???The Great Recession led to massive job losses, especially within male-dominated industries. Since the recession began in December 2007, men have accounted for three out of every four jobs lost (73.6 percent)4 and now 2 million wives are supporting their families(33).??? This data shows that women can substitute men??™s domain. Capitalist economic system give place to women for its labor strength. However women cannot be rewarded as men in working life. Their wages are less then men??™s. Boushey emphasizes that ???As women move into the labor force, their earnings are increasingly important to families and women more and more become the major breadwinner??”even though women continue to be paid 23 cents less than men for every dollar earned in our economy(31).??? This is not a proof for the notion that women can??™t do what exactly the men do in production process, but it can be claimed that this not the women??™s shortage of women, women??™s lesser salary is the result of the request of the cheap labor force of the capitalist system because women are experienced more difficulties for to be hired, and this fact make women more convincible for low salaries. Not only request of the cheap labor force of the capitalist system lead to low wages for women but working circumstances also support unequal payments for labors. Because circumstances of work places not very appropriate for women so they cannot participate the industry very actively. Shortly, women??™s less wage can??™t be considered as women??™s difference from men.
From the beginning of the characterization process, human being have been subjected to propaganda of the some certain gender roles. Defining of difference of sex and gender would be beneficial before the examination of the affect of the early childhood??™s social environment. Sex is a term that which defines the innate biological differences between men and women. It is what we born with it. In spite of this, gender means roles of men and women in society. It??™s not something innate. In ??????Gender Trouble??™??™ Butler argues that, ??????The distinction between sex and gender serves the argument that whatever biological intractability sex appears to have, gender is culturally constructed: hence, gender is neither the causal result of sex nor as seemingly fixed as sex??™??™. (Butler 80). This citation illustrates the discrimination between sex and gender, it is very helpful for comprehending the topic. Men and women are absolutely different from each other biologically, the term of sex indicates these biological differences such as genital, hormones, body type but this difference has no reflection on social habitat of human being. ???Gender??? is what sex in social literature and raised by the society and these rising of ???social sex??? which means gender taught by society. Human being is started to having messages from very early ages about what are their gender roles. Children have very strong gender figures and role models in family. Father who is trying to fight with circumstances of life, earning money, buying toys to children and mother who is always with them, feeding and caring her children, a figure of mercy. In early ages human being face with this type of examples and because of their ages. They are trying to act like their role-model, for girls role-model is their mother and for boys, it is their father. These actions constitute children??™s first social interactions and have very deep effect on their minds. Even parents do not want to be role model of their children, kids are getting the message. Toynbee indicates that ???While Anneli is young her mother stays at home. So she sees her mysterious father go out to work and her mundane mother at home all day. From a very young age, Anneli has got the message, despite her mothers best efforts.??? The study shows that parents cannot get rid of from being their children??™s role-model and their lifestyle, behaviors, reactions imitated by their children. This imitation plays very effective role for little??™s characterization process and shapes their gender codes. Culture and tradition about raising a child also have great effect on their gender. For example, there is a common belief about the baby clothes, boys should wear blue and girls should wear pink clothes. This fact actually a differentiation of boys and girls and color of their clothes not source from their biological differences, only the culture chooses the distinction. The current tradition about raising a child, in all cultures have very old and strong basis also. Fairytales and stories are the product of the ancient cultures and they have also certain good and bad gender models. These good and bad models help the parents raising their child and giving them the ideal gender roles. Toynbee refers to Grabruckers, Marianne??™s experience in Tonybee??™s article ???During a car drive Anneli [Grabruckers??™s daughter] suddenly asks whether witches are bad women. Off the cuff I might easily have said yes, and then I suddenly remembered all the books Ive read about witches; surely I know a bit better than to turn women into witches. So I hold back my yes and explain to her that witches are clever women, who can cure many illnesses because they know a lot about herbs that grow in the woods and mountains, so children need not be afraid of witches because they are kind. Which is all very well, but what is the child to make of the story of Hansel and Gretel and the kind old woman??? If the features of the witches are examined, they are not ideal women for society because they are living alone in mountains or forests and they can fight with men also they are assertive so they must be in bad role in the fairytale. As it seen in the citation cultural products have great effect on children??™s identification of gender process. Even Anneli??™s mother try to convince her about witches are not very bad people, Grabruckers indicates that she couldn??™t go beyond the effectiveness of the ???bad model??? in the story. Society has also different reaction about the acts of boys and girls. This fact has also deepens the social borders between males and females. In early childhood children get some certain response to their actions and it gives them information about how act in society. Grabruckers points out that ?????¦ people address tiny girls quite differently. They talk softly, cajolingly. With boys they are more straightforward, bluff even, talking to them without cooing and cuddling them less readily. When Anneli is occasionally mistaken for a boy, the whole tone of voice changes when someone discovers their error. The same with her friend, the little boy. She also notes the difference in attitudes towards nudity. Little boys are laughed at and encouraged for peeing in public. But people are worried by little girls nakedness and instinctively cover them up in public, making girls feel differently at a young age about their bodies. After all, the rational fear of exciting child molesters applies equally to both sexes.??? These type of responses of society, push the girls and boy distinct from each other and defining their certain gender codes. To sum up
In brief, we can??™t talk about women??™s differences from men are based on natural reasons, because women replace with men in economic life even in male-dominated jobs and some says women can??™t women couldn??™t settle down very properly these jobs because their wages are not equal with men employees but this not because of women insufficient performance in job, wage inequality stems from preferably of cheap working force, because women??™s hardness about finding job is really considerable the men, so women can be convince easier for a less paid job. Human nature shapes its character and differences between opposite sex in social life. The process of learning what their gender and burdening what the society expects from certain gender starting on the family because children have strong gender figures in their family and they are starting to differentiate themselves from opposite sex with imitating their parents. This imitation is inevitable for parents even if parents do not want to bequeath ? their gender codes, daughters caring their dolls, and boys still going to their imaginary work with their toy car. Cultural and traditional remnants also effect positively the difference between men and women. Good characters in fairytales are what the society wants from ideal individual and it also includes messages that one who has behaving like opposite sex is bad person. This fact also constitutes the social differences girls and boys. Lastly, distinction of genders also relies on behaviors of individuals in society towards the children. Little ones exposed to different reactions about some certain behaviors.